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Bunions are one of the most common forefoot problems which occurs on the base of the big toe joint. A displacement of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint occurs which leads to the big toe being angled towards the lesser toes. This movement of the big toe causes a bony prominence on the side of the patients foot (the bunion joint). Over a period of time the big toe may come to rest under (occasionally over) the 2nd toe (see picture).

It is said that women are more at risk at developing bunions due to the fact that they tend to wear tighter footwear. Wearing high heel excessively can also cause bunions, as high heels increase pressure on the ball of the foot.  However some women can spend a lifetime wearing tight shoes and not develop bunions. Research also suggests that bunions can actually be hereditary within a family. Other causes include rheumatoid arthritis and gout. This condition can cause a variety of different soft tissue and bone complaints which may result in severe pain to the patient. The primary cause of bunions is over pronation. Some find their bunion to be extremely painful while others find it not painful at all. This can be controlled via orthotics and insoles.

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Orthotic Proof Sources and Safety Data.

The use of foot orthotics has been researched and tested by leading institutions around the world, and is widely accepted in the medical community. Foot orthotics/ foot insoles are used in both public and private hospitals and clinics.

Clinical studies and field research verify the value of orthotics in preventing and treating bunions while improving the structural integrity of the ligaments and muscles around the ankle. Flexible orthotics control foot motion without restricting function and creating compensatory movement in other structures.


American Academy of Orthotists and Prosthetists

Anthony RJ (1991) The Manufacture and Use of Functional Foot Orthoses.

Valmassey R (1998) Clinical Biomechanics of the Lower Extremity.

Whing W , Zernicke R(1998). Biomechanics of Musculoskeletal Injury.

Journal of Applied Biomechanics

The abnormal pain and swelling of the joint at the base of the big toe that eventually causes the toe to point towards the outside of the foot. In severe cases, the big toe will cross or override the second toe. This is caused by long-term pressure from poorly fitting shoes and excessive pronation (flat arches).



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